The history of Cappadocia has to begin with the geological background to the remarkable landscape here. A long, long time ago a series of eruptions from the cones of Mt. Erciyes and Mt Hasan covered the area in a thick layer of volcanic ash which solidified to form the soft tufa that characterises the surface strata here. Both these volcanic mountains are still extant and dominate the landscape.
During the early times of the spread of Christianity, the people who needed to hide themselves from the Arab raids, carved out these tough rocks thus constructing churches and built underground cities to defend themselves against the raids.
The settlements in Cappadocia had come into existence, mostly in the valleys of Goreme(Jerome)Urgup ,Ihlara valley and underground city of Soganli. The people who had settled here, worshipped in the churches that they carved out of the rocks, and they dealt with agriculture to meet their own needs.The water sources in the valleys made this region productive. The most intensive settlement was in the vicinity of the township of Goreme(Jerome). It is possible to see many churches together today in the locality made into an open air museum.
Our tours visiting Cappadocia